Mac Serial Port

July 7, 2009 at 12:00 am Leave a comment

Mac Serial Port

I have pushed the Mac serial ports to 1 Mbps; email me for more info. Comments?

the communications protocol for the Mac QuickCam takes advantage of many of the Mac serial ports to communicate at 918 Kbps (synchronous). /* the protocol description *was* available at */

[1.4] How fast can the Macintosh serial ports really go? ——————————————————–

Orignally the MacOS supported up to an asynchronous data rate of 57600 bps though the serial hardware could support much higher transfer rates externally clocked (as much as 16 times synchronously). The AV and Powermac introduced a different SCC clock and DMA based serial driver which allowed 115,200 and 230,400 bps. …

While the ability to achive these speeds was useful in the days of communications software (see [3.1]) its importance dwindled with the introduction of Intenet communications and PPP (see [5.3]). The reason is that many non-text files on the Internet are already compressed which renders the built in MNP5 and V.42bis compression methods virturally useless. In addition due to limiations in equipment and phone line quality even a 56K modem rarely gets a sustained throughput over 50K.

For these reasons the modem scripts that come with Open Transport have 57600 bps as the maximum serial speed for a modem.

comp.sys.mac.comm FAQ

David Carys experiences

David Carys experiences with a pulse generator hooked to HSKi …. Mac data out (TxD+ and TxD-) changes only on rising edge of clock. (works fine when *input* data changes only on rising edge of clock).

clock specs: 4Vpp seems adequate, but it *must* go below ground. I used a green (all green LEDs are around 2.0 V, its a physical property of quantum electronics) LED in my level-shift circuit to give me +1 V and -4 V on my clock. It was very distorted (more triangular than square), but it worked OK transmitting stuff back and forth between 2 macs. (using custom software).

_Inside Macintosh IV_ has a nice circuit diagram on p. 249.

The Macintosh Toolbox provides support for serial speeds up to a maximum of 57 600 bps. All my standard modem software is set to 57 600 bps; the 2 modems I use can handle talking to the Mac at that speed.

Technically speaking, however, the Mac serial port hardware can go much faster. You just need special hardware and special software.

Ive witnessed a (prototype) gizmo that plugs into the Mac modem port and talks at 1 000 000 bps (roughly 1 Mega-bit / second) with a (1 MHz) pulse generator hooked to HSKi. (Of course, the 2 Macs involved were doing *nothing* but run my communication code).

(The hardware guys cranked it to 2 Mbps — most characters still made it through, but many were lost.). It went that fast plugged into a PowerBook 520 or when plugged into a Quadra 605.

I got the information I needed to write software for a Mac to interface to this gizmo from the book _Inside Macintosh:Devices_ , a few paragraphs that talk about a “synchronous modem” connection.

_Inside Macintosh_ from Apple says that Mac serial port hardware can be made to go at 500Kbps (900 Kbps or more on most recent models) by supplying a appropriate clock on HSKi. the book seems to indicate GPiA is used for devices with *different* transmit and receive rates. Wierd.

the GPi line … it appears that the Mac SE has one connected, while the Mac Classic and the Mac Plus has no connection to that line (?).

I used the “officially sanctioned” call from the new Inside Macintosh books, const Byte external_clock = 0x40;
gOSErr = Control(gOutputRefNum, 16, &(external_clock)); /* set bit 6 to enable external clocking */

This works fine on my PowerBook520c, a Quadra, and a PowerPC (the only machines I tested my homebrew program, cable, and oscillator on). Mac data out (TxD+ and TxD-) changes only on rising edge of clock. Communication works fine when *input* data changes only on rising edge of clock. (This was the easiest to do — I simply connect the same clock to both Macs). (I never got around to testing whether it would still work if input data changes on falling edge of clock — I figure, if it works, dont fix it).

RS-232 is quiescent *low* (normally low, at -5V on Mac serial port) I have succeded in writing a program that uses a toolbox call “set up Serial A to use HSKi as the receive and transmit clock”. The normal serial toolbox calls only let me go up to 57Kbps. They say “its easy — just poke the appropriate values in the Z8530 SCC. If you dont know its address, just dissassemble the Mac ROMs and figure out how Apple did it”. But of course they want the thing to work plugged into the serial port of *any* Macintosh, including the 1996 models. _Inside Macintosh_ from Apple says that Mac serial port hardware can be made to go at 500Kbps (900 Kbps or more on most recent models) by supplying a appropriate clock (on HSKi, I think). I *think* its easier to use the same clock as both transmit and receive, but the book seems to indicate GPiA is used for devices with *different* transmit and receive rates. Wierd. Surely someone, somewhere has done this before; Id appreciate any programming tips, pointers to magazine articles, books, etc. Ill post a summary of emailed responses, as well as a report on how well they work on my Quadra and on my friends Mac PowerPC. -dc

Date: Tue, 5 Dec 89 16:36:44 EST
From: zben at (Ben Cranston)
Subject: Serial port document (long)

MIT EE claims it is benign but confusing. Caveat Solderor…

This document contains notes on the Macintosh serial port and its use, with
concentration on hardware interface issues.

The DB-25 on the back of a Macintosh is NOT a serial port! It is a SCSI
parallel port. Any attempt to use this connector as a serial port will NOT
function correctly and may cause damage to the Macintosh and/or the equipment
being connected.

The two serial ports of a Macintosh are mini-Din-8 connectors which are
labeled with a telephone (the “modem port”) and a printer (“printer port”).
This is the pinout of the serial connectors. We are looking at the back
of the Macintosh (or alternatively at the BACK of a male plug):

Macintosh Plus Serial Connectors (Mini-DIN-8)

/——###—— 1 HSKo Output Handshake
/ ### (Zilog 8530 DTR pin)
/ 2 HSKi / Clock Input Handshake or extern clk
/ [|] [|] [|] (Depending on 8530 mode)
/ 8 7 6 3 TxD- Transmit data (minus)
| |
| | 4 Ground Signal ground
| === === === |
| 5 4 3 | 5 RxD- Receive data (minus)
| |
| | 6 TxD+ Transmit data (plus)
—-+ === === +—-/
###| 2 1 |###/ 7 N/C (no connection)
##| |##/
| |/ 8 RxD+ Receive data (plus)

Note this is a RS-422 interface so the signals come in a balanced pair,
a positive (plus) and a negative (minus), for each data signal. As we shall
see below, there is an easy method for matching this to RS-232.

We buy the mini-Din-8 connectors at our local electronics surplus store.
They cost just under four dollars each, but are not quite as nice as the
Apple molded plugs (for example, they dont have the nice orienting-D shape).
We are now carefully removing the pins from the connector, soldering the wires
to the pin, then replacing the pin in the connector body. We fan out the
end of the (stranded) wire into a little umbrella around the head of the pin,
then we solder all around. A “third hand” reduces this task from impossible
to merely tedious.

On the original 128K and the 512K upgrade machines (which have a DB-9 connector
instead of the mini-Din-8) the Output Handshake line was held in a “marking”
condition by hardware (a small resistor to the appropriate power supply rail).
On later Macintoshes there are logic and a line driver for this line. This
change introduces the following incompatabilities:

1. SOME of the older terminal programs dont have the code to explicitly
drive HSKo high.

2. SOME terminal programs drop HSKo when they close down.

3. SOME modems require DTR and will drop carrier if DTR goes away.

If the cable design given below, mapping HSKo to DTR, is used, there are two
recognized pathological conditions which can happen:

A. Cannot use modem at all, because of 1 and 3 together.

B. Modem drops out when switching between terminal programs, 2 and 3 together.

Of course, some people consider B a feature, in that it will hang up the
phone when you switch off the computer. Personally, I hang up the phone when
I am done and I like to switch from terminal program to terminal program.
If one of the above conditions happen, there are only three alternatives.

I. If at ALL possible, set your modem up to IGNORE DTR and stay connected.
Look for a DIP switch for this. I personally made this choice.

II. Use only terminal programs which “properly” drive HSKo.
You get to operationally define “properly”🙂

III. Drive DTR from DSR at the modem end of the cable, as described below.

Macintosh to modem (or other DCE device):


GROUND 4 O–+——————–O 7 GROUND

RECV DATA – 5 O———————–O 3 RD (Receive Data)

XMIT DATA – 3 O———————–O 2 TD (Transmit Data)

HANDSHAKE IN 2 O–+——————–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)

Note that in RS-232 the data signals are inverted (marking is minus) while
the control signals are not (marking is plus). Thus the transmit data
minus signal from the Mac is just right for driving the modem. Leave the
transmit data plus signal disconnected. If you ground this you will short
out a driver, and it will probably get hot. Similarly the receive data
signal from the modem/DCE is inverted, so it can drive the Macs receive
data minus line, but in this case the receive data plus line is grounded to
prevent any extraneous signals from being induced into the circuit.

Note also that we are driving both HSKi and DTR from HSKo so the problems
described above can happen. An alternative arrangement would drive these
signals from the modem/DCEs source of DSR, like this:

+–O 6 DSR (Data Set Ready)
HANDSHAKE IN 2 O——————–+–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)

Some dumb modems might require Request To Send (RTS) which one would wire
like this:

+–O 6 DSR (Data Set Ready)
HANDSHAKE IN 2 O——————–+–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
+–O 4 RTS (Request To Send)

Finally, if you have only 3-wire cable and dont need DTR handshake, you
can wire each side to be happy like this:

HANDSHAKE OUT 1 O–+ +–O 6 DSR (Data Set Ready)
HANDSHAKE IN 2 O–+ +–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
+–O 4 RTS (Request To Send)

Macintosh to terminal (or other DTE device):


GROUND 4 O–+——————–O 7 GROUND

RECV DATA – 5 O———————–O 2 TD (Transmit Data)

XMIT DATA – 3 O———————–O 3 RD (Receive Data)

HANDSHAKE IN 2 O———————–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)

The same analysis applies with respect to the data signals, except that
in this case the transmit and receive are switched around, since one guys
transmit should be the other guys receive and vice versa. Note receive
data plus is grounded while transmit data plus is left disconnected.

For this particular cable we have wired the terminal/DTEs DTR back into
the Macintoshes HSKi to implement a hardware handshake. Assume the
terminal side is a printer that is being overrun. One of the things these
printers can do is drop DTR. By wiring it through to the handshake input
we make it possible for the Macintosh software to temporarily pause in
sending, until the printers buffers empty out and the printer reasserts
the DTR signal.

Some terminal devices may need to see DSR (Data Set Ready) or CD
(Carrier Detect) or CTS (Clear to Send), in which case they may be driven
>From an appropriate source.

+–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
This is probably appropriate +–O 6 DSR (Data Set Ready)
for a communications terminal +–O 8 CD (Carrier Detect)
in which DTR is a totally static
signal and does not move. +–O 4 RTS (Request To Send)
+–O 5 CTS (Clear To Send)


+–O 4 RTS (Request To Send)
This is probably appropriate +–O 6 DSR (Data Set Ready)
for a printer that flaps DTR +–O 5 CTS (Clear To Send)
as the buffer fills and empties. +–O 8 CD (Carrier Detect)

The logic is to drive from whichever of DTR or RTS is NOT flapping around
as buffers fill and empty or as the terminal transmits and receives…

To connect directly to an IBM PC we believe CD must be asserted. That is,
an IBM PC will not accept data unless it also sees the CD signal.


Somebody on comp.sys.mac.hardware asked for cables for a 128K/512K Mac!
I didnt know there were any more of those out there!!! 🙂 Here are
the corresponding connections, please use these in conjunction with the
analysis and suggestions provided above:

128K/512K Macintosh to modem (or other DCE device):


GROUND 3 O–+——————–O 7 GROUND

RECV DATA – 9 O———————–O 3 RD (Receive Data)

XMIT DATA – 5 O———————–O 2 TD (Transmit Data)

+ 12 Volts 6 O–+
HANDSHAKE 7 O–+——————–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)

128K/512K Macintosh to terminal (or other DTE device):


GROUND 3 O–+——————–O 7 GROUND

RECV DATA – 9 O———————–O 2 TD (Transmit Data)

XMIT DATA – 5 O———————–O 3 RD (Receive Data)

HANDSHAKE 7 O———————–O 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready)


On the DB-25 pin 1 is the FRAME ground and pin 7 is the SIGNAL ground.
Equipment that requires connection to pin 1 is badly designed (IMHO).
As a very last resort you might try a 1 to 7 jumper.

As you can imagine from seeing all these alternatives, an RS232 breakout
box is real handy, since you can try all these patches without having to
warm up a soldering iron. The only other thing I can say is:


Communications driver chips are built very ruggedly and will stand an
amazing amount of mistreatment for a short period of time. But if you
let two drivers fight for an hour one or both of them will burn out…

Ive read this over a dozen times to make sure there arent any totally
glaring errors, but I cannot be responsible for anybodys smoked hardware.
Lets be careful out there!

Ben Cranston <zben at Trantor.UMD.EDU>
Network Infrastructures Group
Computer Science Center
University of Maryland at College Park
of Ulm

Macintosh Serial Connector (Mini-DIN-8)
(looking into *cable*)

/——###—— 1 HSKo Output Handshake
/ ### (Zilog 8530 DTR pin)
/ 2 HSKi / Clock Input Handshake or extern clk
/ [|] [|] [|] (Depending on 8530 mode)
/ 6 7 8 3 TxD- Transmit data (minus)
| |
| | 4 Ground Signal ground
| === === === |
| 3 4 5 | 5 RxD- Receive data (minus)
| |
| | 6 TxD+ Transmit data (plus)
—-+ === === +—-/
###| 1 2 |###/ 7 N/C (no connection)
##| |##/
| |/ 8 RxD+ Receive data (plus)

# Name typical color typical color
(white cable)(grey cable)
1 HSKo red brown
2 HSKi brown red
3 TxD- green orange
4 gnd yellow yellow
5 RxD- orange green
6 TxD+ black (nc)
7 GPi purple (nc)
8 RxD+ blue black

(pin names from _Apple Mac Family Hardware Reference_ 1988)

Laplink accelerator:
using HSKo (typically +4.2 V) and gnd for power, put
-1.5 V to 2.0 V, 0.75 MHz clock on (both) HSKi.
Connected a Quadra 605 to a Mac Powerbook 160; 900KHz clock worked OK but 926 KHz failed.
(1 HSK0)—diode>|–R–+–>+Vcc->oscillator>-||–+—>(2 HSKi)
| |
(4 gnd)-gnd—-diode>|-+ gnd——-LED>|-+

oscillator>-||–+—>(2 HSKi)

(another pinout document: )

Date: Wed, 28 Jun 1995 00:15:36 -0500
From: bill at (Bill Stewart-Cole)
Subject: Info-Mac Digest V13 #69

In Info-Mac Digest V13 #69, iedh1 at (Dan Hofferth) writes >Responding to:
>>Date: Thu, 22 Jun 1995 17:13:47 +0200
>>From: thomas at (Thomas H Eberhard)
>>Fast modems with budget mac?
>>LC II (this also apply to the LC and all the Classics including the II and
>>colors) According to “Guru” the modemport only support hardware handshake
>>on output. Does that mean that I cant get fast input speed even with
>>28800 modems??
>The Mac Plus, LC, and Classic do _not_ support hardware handshaking. The
>Classic II and LC II _do_ support it, both send and receive. So your “guru”

>is incorrect.

Not quite correct. *EVERY* Mac supports what is called “Hardware Handshaking” in the Mac world. Technically some RS-232 purists will say this is strictly hardware flow control, and NO Mac can implement all the hardware handshaking of RS-232 (which includes hardware ring indication, hardware speed control, and other things) EVERY Mac serial port has a pair of handshake lines, one in and one out. (abbreviated HSKi and HSKo in pinout shorthand) SOME Macs (all but the classic sized models, the //si, and the LC & LC II) also have an additional input on pin 7 (which is disconnected in those other Macs) termed “general purpose by Apple and designated GPi. This is used by some programs like FirstClass (given the rare correct cable) to do hardware carrier detection.

Hardware flow control is done with the pair of handshake lines in all Mac serial ports. HSKo is run to the modems RTS (Request to send) pin, and HSKi is run to the CTS (Clear to send) pin. A good modem cable runs HSKo also to the DTR pin, since that is useful for using DTR in uni-directional flow control and for older (non-compressing and slower) modems. A few cables will also wire GPi to CD, useful in a few programs, but sadly that is still rare in OEM cables. The effect of using an old-style modem cable on a fast or compression-capable modem is in fact that you can only implement flow control on the data stream from the computer, whereas the computer has no way (due to the cable, not the computer) to ever tell the modem to stop. This is a serious problem with slower Macs, which can easily fall behind the data rate of a fast modem.

The reason that many people think the Plus, LC, and other Macs cannot do flow control is that Apples move to the better serial port (with GPi) was somewhat around the same time as the move from vanilla 2400 bps modems to v.42/v.42bis 2400 modems and 9600bps modems. Pure coincidence, but it meant that Apple was making port changes right as people were buying modems that did not work with their old cables. (Some modems even shipped with old-style cables, and in 1990 it was hard to find a hardware handshaking” cable except via mail-order) With Apple using a slightly enhanced serial port on high-end models of the day and high-end modems not working right without a special cable, it is easy to mistakenly connect the two.

Of course I could have just said that I ran a Plus and used “hardware handshaking” for 4 years with 3 different modems that demanded it, but thats not so convincing perhaps. The proof is in the pinouts.

— Bill Stewart-Cole What is Stewart-Cole Consulting? Hell if I know. Ill find out when I finish the web page. Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.portables From: nirvana at Subject: Re: 150 vs 160 Organization: Cruzio Community Networking System, Santa Cruz, CA Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 09:28:11 GMT Sender: nirvana at (Leo Baschy) Lines: 36 rudolf mittelmann <rm at> wrote: > I tried to use MacRecorder (a serial-device external microphone) on > a PB150 – but it did not work (with the newest MacRecorder driver > installed!). > I also could not get the CP Sound to work with it. > Why? > Did Apple cripple the ROMs to disallow sound input? Or what else > is missing? The problem is that “the” serial port device, the MacRecorder by Macromedia, has code that violates Inside Mac, therefore crashes. “The other” serial port device (a version of Voice Navigator from Articulate Systems) is no longer supported because the company now focuses on high-end automated dictation systems, Ive been told. A possible solution would be to fix the code of MacRecorder, but Ive tried to convince the manufacturers (its been transferred from one company to another) for more than four years without result. The new Connectix serial port camera is neat, but the sound is limited to 5kHz, which is not so good. If anybody knows a serial port sound input solution that works for the PB150 Id be more than glad to know about it and to write about it. We could even help out if anybody wants to fix the MacRecorder code, we have the know-how to rewrite that code from scratch. After all the manufacturer makes money on selling the hardware anyway, so they shouldnt mind if we write software that makes it work. Its just so much work, and little demand. – Leo Baschy nirvana at Nirvana Research (408) 459-9663 —

From cary at Wed Feb 1 19:31:33 1995
Date: Wed, 16 Nov 1994 11:30:54 -0700 (MST)
From: Mark Lankton <LANKTON%PISCES at VAXF.Colorado.EDU>
Subject: synchronous serial port
To: d.cary at
X-Vms-To: VAXF::IN%”d.cary at”
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7BIT
Status: O


There is a fairly recent Control call you can make to the serial driver
that lets you use HSKi as a clock, at least for receiving. I have never
tried transmitting that way; all I have to do is listen to an instrument.

The call goes like this:
Control(driverNum,16,0×40); /* Set bit 6 to enable external clocking */

By the way, setting bit 7 with this call means DTR will be unchanged when
you close the driver (if you ever happen to care).

I am right in the middle of building some new hardware to use this method;
for years I have used a home-grown get-in-and-fiddle-with-the-Z8530 input
driver. It always worked fine *except* for exploding on PowerBooks, and
if I didnt have to work on PowerBooks and wasnt worried about maintaining
it in the face of the changing device driver API, I would just keep on
that way.

One important note: the external clock signal apparently wants to be 1x
the bit rate, not 16x as you might guess. And I am still trying to decide
how important the clock polarity is.

Information comes from NIM:Devices.

Good luck, and please let me know how it goes for you.

Mark Lankton
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
University of Colorado

From cary at Wed Feb 1 19:32:31 1995
Date: 22 Nov 94 05:57 EST
From: intolabb at (Steven Intolubbe)
Subject: high speed serial stuff
To: d.cary at

.Hi David,

Do you need to use a synchronous protocol, or do you just need to
externally clock the serial port? The other problem is duty cycle
of the data. Is it a constant stream, bursts, or do you request
what you want when you want it? There is a toolbox call for setting
the external clock mode (on HSKi) but it is in the new inside Mac
books, which I dont have. I accessed the chip directly to set the
external clock mode, and it appeared to work on the 840AV, but the
toolbox would be the best way to do it. As far as synchronous modes
go, I have also done that, all with direct chip register access,
which is was very rude of me. If you want to run a machine in a
synchronous mode, you should write a driver to replace apples serial
manager (I didnt do that because I dont know how). Apple has a
driver for one of their Personal Laserwriters that was supposed to
be close to 1 Mbaud, so if you were in the APDA fold, Im sure they
could help you out.

Hope this helps,

APDA: (800)282-2732
APDA developers support (408)974-4897

Are the 2 serial ports on your machine inadequate ?

Date: Fri, Jun 3, 1994, 20:51:26

The only serial port boards for the Mac I know of are the “Hurdler” and the “Hustler” from Creative Solutions Inc.
4701 Randolph Dr. Suite 12
Rockville, Maryland 20852

There are *lots* of serial port boards for the PC.

Entry filed under: Communications. Tags: .

A-301 High Voltage Amplifier/ Piezo Driver and Modulator2

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